Sunday, July 4, 2021

A Genetically Encoded Fluorosulfonyloxybenzoyl-l-lysine for Expansive Covalent Bonding of Proteins via SuFEx Chemistry

Jun Liu, Li Cao, Paul C. Klauser, Rujin Cheng, Viktoriya Y. Berdan, Wei Sun, Nanxi Wang, Farid Ghelichkhani, Bingchen Yu, Sharon Rozovsky, and Lei Wang

Journal of the American Chemical Society 2021

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.1c04259

Genetically introducing novel chemical bonds into proteins provides innovative avenues for biochemical research, protein engineering, and biotherapeutic applications. Recently, latent bioreactive unnatural amino acids (Uaas) have been incorporated into proteins to covalently target natural residues through proximity-enabled reactivity. Aryl fluorosulfate is particularly attractive due to its exceptional biocompatibility and multitargeting capability via sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) reaction. Thus far, fluorosulfate-l-tyrosine (FSY) is the only aryl fluorosulfate-containing Uaa that has been genetically encoded. FSY has a relatively rigid and short side chain, which restricts the diversity of proteins targetable and the scope of applications. Here we designed and genetically encoded a new latent bioreactive Uaa, fluorosulfonyloxybenzoyl-l-lysine (FSK), in E. coli and mammalian cells. Due to its long and flexible aryl fluorosulfate-containing side chain, FSK was particularly useful in covalently linking protein sites that are unreachable with FSY, both intra- and intermolecularly, in vitro and in live cells. In addition, we created covalent nanobodies that irreversibly bound to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) on cells, with FSK and FSY targeting distinct positions on EGFR to counter potential mutational resistance. Moreover, we established the use of FSK and FSY for genetically encoded chemical cross-linking to capture elusive enzyme–substrate interactions in live cells, allowing us to target residues aside from Cys and to cross-link at the binding periphery. FSK complements FSY to expand target diversity and versatility. Together, they provide a powerful, genetically encoded, latent bioreactive SuFEx system for creating covalent bonds in diverse proteins in vitro and in vivo, which will be widely useful for biological research and applications.

Chemical Specification of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Engagement by Cysteine-Reactive Chemistry

Roman C. Sarott, Inchul You, Yen-Der Li, Sean T. Toenjes, Katherine A. Donovan, Pooreum Seo, Martha Ordonez, Woong Sub Byun, Muhammad Murtaz...