Wednesday, February 24, 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors with antiviral activity in a transgenic mouse model

JINGXIN QIAO, YUE-SHAN LI, RUI ZENG, FENG-LIANG LIU, RONG-HUA LUO, CHONG HUANG, YI-FEI WANG, JIE ZHANG, BAOXUE QUAN, CHENJIAN SHEN, XIN MAO, XINLEI LIU, WEINING SUN, WEI YANG, XINCHENG NI, KAI WANG, LING XU, ZI-LEI DUAN, QING-CUI ZOU, HAI-LIN ZHANG, WANG QU, YANG-HAO-PENG LONG, MING-HUA LI, RUI-CHENG YANG, XIAOLONG LIU, JING YOU, YANGLI ZHOU, RUI YAO, WEN-PEI LI, JING-MING LIU, PEI CHEN, YANG LIU, GUI-FENG LIN, XIN YANG, JUN ZOU, LINLI LI, YIGUO HU, GUANG-WEN LU, WEI-MIN LI, YU-QUAN WEI, YONG-TANG ZHENG, JIAN LEI, SHENGYONG YANG

Science, 2021, eabf1611

DOI: 10.1126/science.abf1611

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus continually poses serious threats to global public health. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a central role in viral replication. We designed and synthesized 32 new bicycloproline-containing Mpro inhibitors derived from either Boceprevir or Telaprevir, both of which are approved antivirals. All compounds inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 7.6 to 748.5 nM. The co-crystal structure of Mpro in complex with MI-23, one of the most potent compounds, revealed its interaction mode. Two compounds (MI-09 and MI-30) showed excellent antiviral activity in cell-based assays. In a SARS-CoV-2 infection transgenic mouse model, oral or intraperitoneal treatment with MI-09 or MI-30 significantly reduced lung viral loads and lung lesions. Both also displayed good pharmacokinetic properties and safety in rats.




Tuesday, February 9, 2021

Fragment-based covalent ligand discovery

Wenchao Lu, Milka Kostic, Tinghu Zhang, Jianwei Che, Matthew P. Patricelli, Lyn H. Jones, Edward T. Chouchani, Nathanael S. Gray

RSC Biol. Chem. 2021

https://doi.org/10.1039/D0CB00222D

Targeted covalent inhibitors have regained widespread attention in drug discovery and have emerged as powerful tools for basic biomedical research. Fueled by considerable improvements in mass spectrometry sensitivity and sample processing, chemoproteomic strategies have revealed thousands of proteins that can be covalently modified by reactive small molecules. Fragment-based drug discovery, which has traditionally been used in a target-centric fashion, is now being deployed on a proteome-wide scale thereby expanding its utility to both the discovery of novel covalent ligands and their cognate protein targets. This powerful approach is allowing ‘high-throughput’ serendipitous discovery of cryptic pockets leading to the identification of pharmacological modulators of proteins previously viewed as “undruggable”. The reactive fragment toolkit has been enabled by recent advances in the development of new chemistries that target residues other than cysteine including lysine and tyrosine. Here, we review the emerging area of covalent fragment-based ligand discovery, which integrates the benefits of covalent targeting and fragment-based medicinal chemistry. We discuss how the two strategies synergize to facilitate the efficient discovery of new pharmacological modulators of established and new therapeutic target proteins.




Monday, February 8, 2021

Multicomponent reaction–derived covalent inhibitor space

Fandi Sutanto, Shabnam Shaabani, Constantinos G. Neochoritis, Tryfon Zarganes-tzitzikas, Pravin Patil, Ehsan Ghonchepour, Alexander Dömling

Science Advances  2021, 7, 6, eabd9307

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd9307

The area of covalent inhibitors is gaining momentum due to recently introduced clinical drugs, but libraries of these compounds are scarce. Multicomponent reaction (MCR) chemistry is well known for its easy access to a very large and diverse chemical space. Here, we show that MCRs are highly suitable to generate libraries of electrophiles based on different scaffolds and three-dimensional shapes and highly compatible with multiple functional groups. According to the building block principle of MCR, acrylamide, acrylic acid ester, sulfurylfluoride, chloroacetic acid amide, nitrile, and α,β-unsaturated sulfonamide warheads can be easily incorporated into many different scaffolds. We show examples of each electrophile on 10 different scaffolds on a preparative scale as well as in a high-throughput synthesis mode on a nanoscale to produce libraries of potential covalent binders in a resource- and time-saving manner. Our operational procedure is simple, mild, and step economical to facilitate future covalent library synthesis.



Friday, February 5, 2021

The rise of covalent proteolysis targeting chimeras

Ronen Gabizon, Nir London

Current Opinion in Chemical Biology,  62, 2021, 24-33

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.12.003

Targeted protein degradation offers several advantages over direct inhibition of protein activity and is gaining increasing interest in chemical biology and drug discovery. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) in particular are enjoying widespread application. However, PROTACs, which recruit an E3 ligase for degradation of a target protein, still suffer from certain challenges. These include a limited selection for E3 ligases on the one hand and the requirement for potent target binding on the other hand. Both issues restrict the target scope available for PROTACs. Degraders that covalently engage the target protein or the E3 ligase can potentially expand the pool of both targets and E3 ligases. Moreover, they may offer additional advantages by improving the kinetics of ternary complex formation or by endowing additional selectivity to the degrader. Here, we review the recent progress in the emerging field of covalent PROTACs.

Thiol Reactivity of N-Aryl α-Methylene-γ-lactams: Influence of the Guaianolide Structure [@KayBrummond]

 Daniel P. Dempe, Chong-Lei Ji, Peng Liu, and Kay M. Brummond The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2020 DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.2c01530 The α-meth...